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One thing is for certain: Throughout the arc of movie history, a certain few filmmakers step in with their own voice, telling their own personal tales, from the streets of their own neighborhoods, and enrich the rest of our culture in the process. We would never have learned the thrilling realization that traditional notions of plot could be cast aside in favor of compelling character studies.

The streets of New York would seem a little darker, duller. The faces of DeNiro, Keitel and Pesci would be non-existent. The rest is history. Where would the movies be without Martin Scorsese? And where would he be without Mean Streets? The rest is waiting. All That Jazz is a semi-autobiographical work for Fosse, with many of his own doubts, struggles, fears, highs and lows played out through his lead character. Hence the adoration of guys like Woody Allen, who paid Bogart the ultimate respect in Play it Again, Sam , where the protagonist has Bogart for an imaginary friend, one that gives him pointers on impressing the ladies with those classic hardboiled lines.

Aside from its stunning on-location visuals, fascinating love story and sharp William Wyler direction, Roman Holiday fills one true purpose in film history — the film that introduced the world to Audrey Hepburn.

E For all this, the timing was right, and the rest, as they say, is history. This is the true test of a movie classic, to be deemed important in such a wide array of historical influence. The rest of the credit belongs to the storied team of Hepburn and costume designer Hubert de Givenchy, who also crafted her outfits in Sabrina , Funny Face , Love in the Afternoon , Paris — When it Sizzles and culminating in the Best Picture winner My Fair Lady A former professor of mine swore by Big Fish Is he a groundbreaking genius of cinematic language?

Or is he just a guy with a great imagination and a keen eye for commercial success? I contend the answer lies in what I like to call Ed Wood Scissorhands. The two films teamed Burton with consistent collaborators — producer Denise Di Novi, star Johnny Depp, casting director Victoria Thomas, cinematographer Stefan Czapsky, art department guru Tom Duffield and costume designer Colleen Atwood — and both arrived after smash hit Batman films.

At times, Burton has mastered both realms, and it seems historians are eagerly waiting to see which side wins out. Few directors in our history, let alone the last 25 years, have such a distinct style that you can look at any of their films and within seconds identify who must be directing it. Certain movies just surprise you, not simply in terms of plot, but in their sheer heart, their blinding truth, and how good they make you feel.

Planes, Trains and Automobiles is one of those movies.

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Though it does feature its own special twist, the real surprise comes in what is left after the revelation — a movie with more perspective on life than anything viewers have come to expect is possible from a road trip buddy comedy of its kind. Two days before Thanksgiving, over-stressed workaholic Neal Page Steve Martin tries to get from his business trip in New York City back home to Chicago so he can be with his family for the holidays. But different is good, earning the title of 1 Teen Movie of All Time in a ranking by Empire magazine.

When it came to cranking out instant classics on the teenage scene, nobody did it better than John Hughes. Together, these films both captured and defined what it meant to be a youth in the s. Invariably, everyone has a different personal favorite mine is Ferris Bueller , but looking back a quarter-century later, the most important may just be The Breakfast Club.

It does so with a simple, yet effective premise where five teenagers, each of a different social stereotype, must share a room for Saturday detention and spend time with peers they otherwise never would. Eye-witness testimony is unreliable. They collect facts, make notes and draw conclusions. Look, memory can change the shape of a room, it can change the color of a car. And memories can be distorted. We are kept simultaneously informed and uninformed, at the mercy of a film that moves largely in reverse order, drawing suspense out of discovering the truth of the past, rather than revelations of the future.

I just want every man, woman and child in America to see it. Indeed, it was crucial for a nation to collectively watch this post-war epic after the shared experience of returning from World War II, as the flickering light of a film projector helped Americans work through their fears, memories and permanent life changes. It was also their most successful together, winning seven Oscars, including Best Director for Wyler and Best Picture for Goldwyn, who that same year accepted the Irving Thalberg Memorial Award, which Wyler would himself win 20 years later.

When you get down to it, Deliverance is really an art film disguised as an adventure flick. So for those who remember Deliverance as that cheap river movie with the weird redneck rape scene, look again. Plotless, surreal and quite funny, the film ignores the bounds of a traditional narrative. Except, Bunuel does so in a way that also champions his brand of intelligent French filmmaking. The characters and tone may mock the culture, but the form exemplifies it.

How can I take a negative and turn it into a positive? At the time, the titular city was still occupied by the Germans, who would certainly not approve of such a film. Even more problematic, raw film stock was scarce, actors were hard to find, money for building sets was almost non-existent and a polished product was impossible without controlled studio lighting. So, Rossellini did what any innovative filmmaker would do — he started a movement.

Italian Neorealism was founded on the ideal of urgent authenticity, taking a mobile camera out into the streets, trading phony sets for actual locations, making the most of natural lighting and casting real-life laborers instead of professional actors. The result was an entirely fresh filmmaking style that would later evolve into the Dogme 95 and cinema verite styles.

Adding to the authenticity was the constant threat of German oppression. After directing the highest grossing silent movie ever in The Big Parade , King Vidor inked a long-term deal with MGM, where producer Irving Thalberg allowed him enormous artistic freedom for his next project. Originally titled One of the Mob, the project eventually became The Crowd, a film detailing the lost promise of the American Dream that so many face, often in urban dwellings.

Thus, The Crowd stands as the art masterpiece that got its chance off the success of The Big Parade blockbuster, the expression of the one after the cheers of the mob, epitomizing the very notion of The Film Spectrum. With such words, an instant red flag should jump up, warning that only a select group of viewers will enjoy this film.

Many will find it corny, even laughable to a degree. But for each of these, there is a film professor somewhere, pleading audiences to give Sirk his due. Of all his work, I keep coming back to Written on the Wind. Did you ever hear of Wall Street? That project was 42nd Street, such a huge spring success for Warner Bros. Miller pioneered the idea 21 years earlier. This was the real west, with the myth stripped away. Gone was the moral John Wayne figure set against the spread of impressive frontier formations. In its place was a dreary world, full of wet browns and greens, gritty, dirty and covered in snow.

Gone also was the adventure subject matter of Cowboys and Indians, and in its place stood a tale of greed and prostitution. If you live long enough, you hope to have that rare experience of sitting in a theater when a movie comes along that changes everything. After all, you never know when such a zeitgeist is going to strike. To share in her naivety as to how culturally significant that shower was about to become. To hold my breath as a shadowy figure approached that shower curtain. When scholars sit down to examine his work, they cannot single out any one masterpiece.

Because, after all, Allen is first and foremost a movie lover, finding his ultimate expression of that love here in this underrated gem. Look, I can make a picture out of your worst story. I did awfully good by the making of the thing; I made close to a million. Jarmusch got his start as an assistant under the invaluable mentors Nicholas Ray and Wim Wenders, at which point he decided to forgo his NYU film school graduation and put the rest of his scholarship money toward his first film, Permanent Vaction When the film hit the festival circuit, including the International Film Festival Rotterdam, Jarmusch used its warm reception to raise money to turn it into a full-length feature.

Confidential and the Chinatown sequel The Two Jakes Back were the the private dicks, femme fatales, venetian blinds and smoky silhouettes, but they were now infused with a modern style reflecting the corruption of the modern age. But if you like the hand of fate leading twisted folks to tragic conclusions, Chinatown will snip your nose and wash you away.

In , two students at the University of Texas at Austin got together and wrote a script. Wes Anderson and Owen Wilson. The young filmmakers sent the film to a family friend, screenwriter L. It was released by Columbia Pictures in , recasting the Wilson brothers and scoring a casting coup with James Caan. Yeoman and performances by several repeat cast members, most notably Bill Murray. It at once charms the most elite critics, voted No. You know a film is cutting edge when its setting Sparta, Mississippi had to be shot further north Sparta, Illinois because its themes made it too dangerous to actually shoot in the Deep South.

Kennedy — In the Heat of the Night addressed the racial tensions that were already boiling over in a divided United States, and it did so with a simple premise — place two men together, one black and one white, and let them overcome their prejudices while striving for a common goal. The earth-based bios of real-life astronauts. The triumphant runway walk in space suits. A mission made possible in vastly different ways by Alan Shepard.

The awe-inspiring shots of breaking into space. If any film were to deserve a spot as a runner-up — a nice, shorter, less epic, more entertaining runner-up — Apollo 13 is that film. Like Titanic and United 93 after it, the film succeeds in pulling drama from story where we already know the ending. Jennings while teaching poet John Milton to his class.

Thankfully, the exact opposite is true for Animal House, a comedy that remains as funny and relevant today as it was in This kind of lasting appeal is largely because the film presents a timeless subject, in that as long as there is college, there will always be frat parties.

In , the staff of Filmmaker Magazine got together to vote on the Most Important Independent Films in history, of which there could only be one most important. No doubt the list-topper would require several criteria to take the title. It would have to be pioneering, influencing every aspect of the modern independent movement. It would have to be unconventional, using film techniques that break all the standard rules of Hollywood studio filmmaking.

And it would have to have a sexy financing story, using shoe-string means of funding and the distribution. Considering all this, it seems Filmmaker Magazine got it right. On most every best list, the default Marx Brothers selection is Duck Soup Then, in , when it came time for a 10th Anniversary List, the AFI again tapped Duck Soup for the list, only now there was an exciting new addition, yet another Marx Brothers film, the always entertaining and yet odd pairing of music and madcap, A Night at the Opera.

Made just two years after Duck Soup, it came at a rough time for the Marx Bros. Duck Soup had just flopped at the box office and, as a result, Paramount had just terminated their contract. On top of that, the fourth Marx Brother and youngest of the bunch, Zeppo, was out of the gang, leaving just Groucho, Harpo and Chico, which was OK by practically everyone.

This should give some indication as to the mindset of Jack L. Producing the first movie musical version of the tale, Warner full expected to be next in line for the honors when the Academy showered his film with eight Oscars, including Best Picture and Best Director George Cukor. Historians write of her devastation at having lost to Grace Kelly for The Country Girl , ending her last best chance at an Oscar — she was later nominated for Judgement at Nuremburg , but the performance was hardly worthy.

Not far off from the final scene of A Star is Born, Garland stepping out on stage for a benefit concert, and famously addressing the audience: Legendary figures make for legendary trivia. And my favorite of all movie anecdotes will always be this: Charlie Chaplin once entered a Charlie Chaplin lookalike contest…and finished third. Even today, the character remains our most famous fictional human figure, and its most cherished silhoutte.

Can you imagine a modern comedian, say, Will Ferrell, being so recognizable a century from now? But that is exactly what Chaplin did. His comic ingenuity made his screen persona universally recognizable some 95 years after its creation. The in-your-face violence told with equally violent camera movements has become a renowned staple of the Scorsese style, but Scorsese will be the first to acknowledge Fuller as the patriarch of such an approach. Only recently has Fuller begun to receive the kind of adulation he deserves, yet still not enough due to the B-picture mask of his movies.

Throughout his impressively authentic body of work, one masterpiece stands out above the rest: Pickup on South Street. Still, when the conversation narrows specifically to the realm of comedy, Brooks is a given, and Blazing Saddles is often the standard bearer. Can you imagine a comedy world without the contribution of Blazing Saddles? The Return of the King The Sound of Music.

After all, the film was nominated for a whopping 10 Academy Awards, winning five, including Best Picture. Second to the king, Ernst Lubistch, there was only ever one man as skilled, tender, hilarious and influential in pioneering the romantic comedy — Preston Sturges. You could sense the menace lurking just beneath the surface in his debut film, Knife in the Water But Roman Polanski would elevate that ominous feeling to all-out horror in his next film, Repulsion, his first in English and his first collaboration with screenwriter Gerard Brach.

It remains every bit the creeper it was back then and serves as a great introduction to the twisted mind of Polanski. But I prefer to think the genre was saved two years earlier, in the first film Apatow directed, The Year-Old Virgin, arriving at a crucial time, the summer of The reigning kings of comedy, the so-called Frat Pack, had just released their last great effort, Wedding Crashers , a comedy that swept the country.

Exactly a month later, they would pass the torch to their heir apparents, the Apatow-Rogen crowd, using common links forged back on Anchorman: When most average movie fans thinks of the origin of color cinema, they probably think back to The Wizard of Oz and that glorious moment where a sepia Dorothy opens the door to a world of color.

Few actually realize color existed from the very beginning. Griffith tinted scenes in The Birth of a Nation In , Herbert and Natalie Kalmus founded Technicolor, shooting through red and green filters on two strips of film that were then glued together, and created the first color feature in Hollywood, Toll of the Sea Jack Warner took the next big step by combining the novelties of color and sound in Show of Shows , where two dyed strips were transfered onto a single piece of film.

In , Technicolor announced a new three-strip process red, blue, green , ushering in the first feature length live action all color film, La Cucaracha By , Technicolor had 25 films in production, and the process was becoming more and more viable. It was a formula for both a decade of dominance and a gradual slip into full-blown excess. In fact, the film was so popular that its ABC television debut on Sept.

An exceptional hit indeed. But make no mistake about it: From the beginning, Walt relied on technological advancement as his niche claim to fame, carving a reputation for ambition and ingenuity that would sustain his considerable talents as a storyteller. His first big break, the silent Alice pictures, played on the gimmick of combining live action with animation, long before Who Framed Roger Rabbit?

His second, Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie , marked another technological breakthrough as the first animated cartoon with sound. In , American moviegoers were shown plenty of dark, honest looks into American society — the tragedy of poverty and confused faith in Midnight Cowboy, the acid trips and failed freedom movement of Easy Rider, and the ultra-violence and threat of aging in The Wild Bunch. Viewers flocked to theaters to make Butch and Sundance the 1 movie of I dare you to find better chemistry than that between Paul Newman and Robert Redford in their respective title roles, a chemistry so good that four years later director George Roy Hill reunited them for The Sting to win the Oscar for Best Picture.

Academics mostly favor the original, produced by Howard Hughes, written by Ben Hecht and directed by Howard Hawks. On the other hand, the hip hop generation unanimously prefers the remake, written by Oliver Stone and directed by Brian De Palma. Each was undoubtedly the most graphic film at its respective release date and faced tough censorship. To know both is to love both. For while the Farrellys crank out fodder for the mainstream, Ashby does none of the sort. He lives in the cult, where films try to break the rules, and Harold and Maude is no exception.

They usually carry the chick flick stigma and are lucky to get even one Oscar nomination. It got wins, and in all five major categories: But a comedy it was, making It Happened One Night a truly groundbreaking moment in cinema history and an underdog triumph that no one, except Capra and Riskin, saw coming.

Picture a silent film. But sometime around , a fascinating seachange happened in a large chunk of the academic community. Critical opinion began to shift away from Chaplin and toward another silent comedian. Oh, the scholars of the Hollywood Renaissance still admired Chaplin, sure.

Like Chaplin, Keaton wrote, directed, produced and starred in his own films. He directed and starred in his first films in , and was soon creating masterful shorts, like One Week and The Scarecrow , before graduating to longer works, gems like Our Hospitality , Sherlock Jr. Throughout, he perfected his craft, his comic timing, his understanding of camera, until finally he was ready to make his masterpiece, The General.

No, Baby was just another in a blooming trend of the new subgenre, following films like W. Does it honestly get any screwier than Katharine Hepburn with a pet leopard or Cary Grant as a paleontologist looking for his lost dinosaur bone? That limey cocksucker can rot in hell for all I care! Like the real Lugosi, the character cannot hide his jealousy over the success of Boris Karloff as Frankenstein: Indeed, his jealousy is rooted in the pains of missed opportunity. For after the success of Dracula in , its Universal producers E.

Asher and Carl Laemmle Jr. But he turned it down, saying the part was too degrading for a big star like him. Frankenstein became an even bigger success than Dracula, and Karloff launched to superstardom. Meanwhile, Lugosi settled for lesser films, saw his work turn into parody, and ended his life a penniless drug-addict. Still, the fact that Lugosi never escaped Dracula underscores his effectiveness in the role.

Part of the power of movies is their ability to provide reference points to various historical events. As for the Great Depression, and the accompanying Dust Bowl of the s, no film is more definitive, or more accurate, than The Grapes of Wrath. The source novel by John Steinbeck was an enormous hit, as people read the plight of the Joad family as therapy for their own everyday hardship. Famed producer Darryl F. Like the latter, Giant was an epic tale of life in the deep south, based off a famous book by a female author, this time Edna Ferber instead of Margaret Mitchell.

But it still was Warner Bros. Two weeks before the cross-country trip he devised the concept for sex, lies, and videotape, of which he wrote the final draft during the eight-day drive to L. The Fly was a natural next step in this filmography, and lucky for us, it is so much more than its stomach-turning premise.

And right there in their midst, catching your eye is a spectacular stunt in the most famous scene of The Great Escape — Steve McQueen jumping his motorcycle over a barbed wire fence. Needless to say McQueen rode that bike into immortality. How fitting that Escape be directed by John Sturges, whose name evokes the famed Sturgis bike rally, for these are the people who love his movies.

All three are great pictures sporting the chiseled faces of Lancasters, Bronsons and McQueens. How is a piece of pop culture born? Man writes novel in Director adapts novel to film in A young Mel Brooks sees that film, considers it his favorite of all time, and homages it in Blazing Saddles Few films have so successfully combined such adventure, humor and fable all into one.

Even fewer have had such an impact on future filmmakers, like Paul Thomas Anderson, who watched it every night while writing There Will Be Blood The reclusive and mysterious novelist B. It was a time when the silent era was folding and in its place emerged a new studio system full of specialization. Just as studios broke down production into a series of categories writers, editors, directors , so they also did their product, finding genre niches to appeal to very targeted audiences.

The most famous of these were the horror film at Universal, riding the success of Dracula and Frankenstein , and the gangster picture over at Warner Bros. It was in this environment that producer Daryl F. Zanuck brought us two gangster classics at roughly the same time, Little Caesar and The Public Enemy. But The Public Enemy carries its own unique reputation, simply for its establishment of the studio most identified with the genre, and the man most synonymous with the genre, who with one smash of a grapefruit went from unknown to gangster superstar. American morale has been crushed by the Great Depression.

People are out of jobs, deflated, flat. Yet onto the movie screen walks this gangster — an ambitious, proactive, fast-talking son of a bitch, and he electrifies the viewing public. Robinson in Little Caesar was more than just a fine performance.

North America: c. 30, years ago - - Oxford Reference

It marked a seachange in American film, making room for edgier presentations and defining a new genre in the gangster picture. Its box office release remains the No.

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And in , the film ranked a powerful No. It does, however, still carry weight with the romantics out there, who voted the film No. But his new found faith is constantly put to the test by the temptations of his former wayward life, forcing him into grand, defensive statements of purpose. Three ways to place a hold on these items: Phone 03 Monday to Friday 8am to 8pm and Saturday and Sunday 9am to 5pm.

Hand in your list at your local library, with your name and card number written in the box below. Decline in the federal gold reserve and panic by investors prompts a spectacular crash in the US economy. Go to Free Silver Movement. William Randolph Hearst buys the New York Journal , the first of numerous purchases in building up his press empire. Go to Red Badge of Courage, The: Joshua Slocum sails from Boston in his sloop Spray for his attempt at a solo circumnavigation of the world.

Go to Slocum, Joshua —c. Utah is admitted to the union as the 45th state, after the Mormons agree to give up polygamy. Go to Robinson, E. Ferguson that it is legal for a state to provide 'separate but equal' facilities for blacks. US engineer Henry Ford test drives his first four-wheel internal-combustion vehicle, the Quadricycle, built in a coal shed behind his home.

Go to McKinley, William b. Henry James views the feckless adults in Maisie's life through the eyes of the child herself in What Maisie Knew. Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes Women and Economics , developing the feminist theme in US cultural and political life. Go to National Consumers' League. Joshua Slocum reaches Newport, Rhode Island, after sailing 46, miles to achieve the first solo voyage round the world. US basketball becomes a professional game with the establishment in Philadelphia of the National Basketball League.

US social scientist Thorstein Veblen publishes The Theory of the Leisure Class , an attack on capitalist exploitation and 'consumerism'. Marconi equips two ships to send radio reports to New York on the progress of the yachts racing for the America's Cup. US Secretary of State John Hay circulates a proposal that western powers should adopt an open-to-all trading policy in China. After a prodigiously productive career as novelist and journalist, Stephen Crane dies of tuberculosis at the age of Joshua Slocum publishes Sailing Alone Around the World , an account of his famous circumnavigation.

Jack London's first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf , brings him a wide readership. Theodore Dreiser's first novel, Sister Carrie , receives no publicity because his publisher, Frank Doubleday, considers it immoral. More than people die when a hurricane demolishes the seaside resort of Galveston in Texas. The American League emerges from baseball's Western League, before going national in In the US presidential election William McKinley wins a second term on a simple platform, promising 'the full dinner pail'.

Go to automobile in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to coffee in A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 3 ed. Frank Lloyd Wright designs low residential buildings, suitable for the plains around Chicago, and calls them Prairie Houses. The Texas oil industry is launched with the discovery of the 75,barrel-a-day Lucas Gusher near Beaumont. Go to Petroleum Industry. Frank Norris publishes The Octopus , the first of a projected trilogy of novels set in Southern California. Go to Octopus, The: President McKinley is assassinated by an anarchist when visiting the Pan-American exhibition in Buffalo.

Go to Roosevelt, Theodore b. Edith Wharton's publishes her first full-length novel, The Valley of Decision. Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside independently see the link between the atmosphere and the behaviour of radio waves. Go to dixieland in The Oxford Companion to Music 1 rev ed. Brooklyn shopkeepers Morris and Rose Michtom have a huge success with their presidential 'Teddy's Bear'. Go to teddy bear in A New Dictionary of Eponyms 1 ed. Cuba is forced to accept a permanent US military presence in Guantanamo Bay. Gertrude Stein leaves the USA to share with her brother an apartment in Paris that soon becomes a literary and artistic salon.

Go to Stein, Gertrude 3 Feb. Go to cinema in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. A US warship appears off the coast of Panama in support of rebels declaring an independent republic. William Harley and three Davidson brothers begin the commercial production in Milwaukee of motorcycles, but complete only three by the end of the year.

Go to Du Bois, W. The Pit , the second volume of an uncompleted trilogy by US novelist Frank Norris, is published posthumously. Go to Pit, The: The first World Series is played between nine leading baseball teams from the National League and the American League. The USA is granted exclusive control in perpetuity of a ten-mile corridor across Panama, suitable for a canal.

Orville Wright travels 40 yards in the first successful powered flight, at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina. Theodore Roosevelt wins the US presidential election in his own right. US inventor King C. Gillette receives a patent for a disposable safety razor. Go to safety razor noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Australian soprano Nellie Melba makes the first of a great many recordings. Industrial Workers of the World with its members later known as Wobblies is founded in Chicago as a radical union initiative.

Edith Wharton publishes the novel that brings her fame and fortune, The House of Mirth. Percival Lowell predicts the existence of an unknown planet, almost exactly where Pluto is discovered 25 years later. Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle , a hard-hitting novel about the Chicago meat-packing industry. Fire destroys much of San Francisco following the most violent earthquake in the city's history.

Go to San Francisco Earthquake and Fire. In Charles Ives' composition The Unanswered Question the trumpet repeatedly asks 'the perennial question of existence'. The Naturalization Act provides definitive requirements for naturalization as a US citizen. Go to Pure Food and Drug Act. Stuart Blackton, introduces the concept of the animated cartoon. Go to animation in A Dictionary of Media and Communication 1 ed. President Roosevelt sends marines to protect US property during political unrest in Honduras.

US philosopher William James publishes Pragmatism: Collapse of trust companies causes panic and financial crisis in USA. A Midwest region, including what remains of the reserved Indian Territory, is included in Oklahoma when it joins the Union as the 46th state. President Roosevelt sends a fleet of warships on a goodwill tour of the world that also demonstrates US power. William Howard Taft, the Republican candidate, is elected to follow Roosevelt as president.

Go to Taft, William Howard b. Leo Baekeland announces his discovery of Bakelite, calling it 'the material of a thousand uses'. Mary Pickford begins her film career at sixteen, when she is hired by D. Jack London publishes his most autobiographical novel, Martin Eden. US physicist Robert A. Millikan devises an oil drop experiment that determines the charge of an electron.

Go to Millikan's oil-drop experiment in A Dictionary of Physics 6 ed. President Taft sends marines to Nicaragua after the government there executes two US citizens. Go to Taft, William Howard 15 Sept. Joshua Slocum, the most famous sailor of the day, vanishes on another lone voyage. Chicago cardiologist James Herrick publishes the first account of the cells causing sickle-cell anaemia.

Go to sickle cell anaemia in A Dictionary of Biomedicine 1 ed. US geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan establishes the chromosome theory of heredity through his study of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The Gimbel family open their flagship department store in Manhattan. Go to department store in A Dictionary of Marketing 3 ed. Elizabeth Arden opens her first beauty salon on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan. Ely lands his Curtiss biplane on the US cruiser Pennsylvania , pointing the way to the future development of the aircraft carrier. Go to Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire.

US inventor Isaac Newton Lewis patents a lighter version of the machine gun. US driver Ray Harroun wins the first Indianapolis motor race. Go to Automobile Racing. Scott Joplin completes a ragtime opera, Treemonisha. Go to Joplin, Scott? Frances Hodgson Burnett publishes The Secret Garden , which becomes a classic of children's literature. Baseball pitcher Cy Young retires with a record achievement of wins in 22 professional seasons. Rudolph Wurlitzer's company in the USA produces the first of its famous movie theatre organs.

New Mexico becomes the 47th state of the United States of America. Go to New Mexico in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Arizona becomes the 48th state of the United States of America. Go to Arizona in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Roosevelt, Theodore 27 Oct. Lillian and Dorothy Gish make their screen debut with the Biograph Company.

The White Star liner Titanic sinks on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York, drowning passengers and crew. President Taft sends US marines to Cuba because of political unrest in the island. Theodore Roosevelt's followers form a rival party to the Republicans, soon to be known as the Bull Moose party. Go to Progressive Party of — Mack Sennett sets up the Keystone studio in California, soon to be famous for the knockabout farce of the Keystone Kops.

Go to Keystone Kops [Cin. Renascence is the title poem in college student Edna St Vincent Millay's first published collection. Go to Millay, Edna St. Memphis Blues is composed by 'father of the blues' W. Go to Handy, W. Go to Wilson, Thomas Woodrow 28 Dec. Go to railway stations in The Oxford Companion to Architecture 1 ed. In O Pioneers Willa Cather finds her major theme, life on the frontier. The US navy begins transmitting by radio a regular time signal, much used by the nation's watchmakers and menders. In Pollyanna Eleanor Porter introduces an immensely successful character, the irrepressibly optimistic orphan Pollyanna Whittier.

The Woolworth Building opens in New York as the world's tallest skyscraper, a distinction it retains until Henry Ford pioneers the moving assembly line in the manufacture of cars at his company's Michigan plant. Go to Brillo pad noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. The foxtrot, possibly introduced by US performer Harry Fox, becomes an immensely popular ballroom dance.

Go to foxtrot in The Oxford Dictionary of Dance 2 ed. Edith Wharton's novel The Custom of the Country begins publication in serial form. George Ruth acquires the nickname Babe when he joins the baseball team the Baltimore Orioles. American-born poet Thomas Stearns Eliot crosses the Atlantic to England, making it his home for the rest of his life.

Go to Eliot, T. Margaret Anderson publishes in Chicago the first issue of The Little Review , a monthly literary magazine. The Assemblies of God is established as the largest affiliation of Pentecostal churches. Go to Assemblies of God in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Martha, 29 years old and the last passenger pigeon in the world, dies in the Cincinnati zoo in Ohio. The sculptor Constantin Brancusi has his first one-man exhibition, at Stieglitz's gallery in New York.

Go to Brancusi, Constantin 19 Feb. The Clayton Act strengthens many aspects of US antitrust legislation. The Corning Glass Company launches Pyrex, a new range of heat-resistant kitchen ware made from borosilicate glass. Thomas Edison invents a machine to record telephone conversations, calling it the telescribe. American campaigner for birth control Margaret Sanger publishes a controversial pamphlet, Family Limitation. Typhoid-carrier Mary Mallon is detained in New York after leaving a trail of destruction.

Go to Masters, Edgar Lee ? William Joseph Simmons, a suspended Methodist preacher in Georgia, wins a big racist following in the south with his revival of the defunct Ku Klux Klan. Haiti becomes a US protectorate, under the terms of a treaty signed in the previous year. Enrique Granados, on the last leg of his return from New York, is one of many civilians to die when the Sussex is torpedoed by a U-boat in the English Channel. Earth's the right place for love' in Robert Frost's 'Birches', included in his collection Mountain Interval.

Go to National Park System. In his first World Series for the Boston Red Sox, year-old Babe Ruth sets a still unbroken record, pitching 13 successive scoreless innings. William Boeing flies an aircraft built by himself, and a month later sets up in Seattle his own Aero Product company. The Passing Show of is the first of 22 musicals written in the short span of 17 years by the brothers George and Ira Gershwin. In his ground-breaking film Intolerance D.

Ballad of Davy Crockett

Griffith intercuts four parallel stories from different historical periods. The Imagist poet H.

Hilda Doolittle publishes her first collection, Sea Garden. Margaret Sanger opens the first US birth control clinic, in a poor district of Brooklyn, and is gaoled for thirty days. Go to Highway System. November 7 - Woodrow Wilson wins re-election as US president after campaigning on the slogan 'He kept us out of war'. New York responds with enthusiasm when the Original Dixieland Jazz Band performs a new kind of music in Reisenweber's restaurant. Silent film comedian Harold Lloyd adopts the glasses and the straw hat that become his familiar props.

The first annual prizes are awarded, under the terms of Joseph Pulitzer's will, for the best new US novel, play, history and biography. Race riots against migrant southern blacks in East St Louis, Missouri, leave forty-eight dead. March 1 - a deciphered telegram, from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann, inflames US public opinion by promising Texas and more to Mexico. Go to Zimmermann Note 19 Jan. April - German U-boats sink Allied and neutral merchant ships in this month alone. June - the Allies frustrate the German U-boats by introducing the convoy system.

Go to convoy system in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson formulates fourteen detailed proposals as a basis for world peace once the conflict has ended. May - US troops are by now fighting in large numbers on the western front. Quia Pauper Amavi contains the first three of Ezra Pound's eventually more than cantos.

Fletcher Rhoden

US boxer Jack Dempsey defeats Jess Willard for the world heavyweight title, sending him from the ring with a broken jaw. At least thirty-eight people are killed in a race riot in Chicago. Lillian Gish stars as a Cockney girl in D. Griffith's inter-racial film romance Broken Blossoms , set in London's slums. Steelworkers go on strike in the US, attempting a major confrontation with industrial management.

Go to Steel Strike of President Woodrow Wilson suffers a severe stroke that renders him largely incapable during the final seventeen months of his presidency.

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Sherwood Anderson establishes a reputation with a collection of short stories, Winesburg, Ohio. Prohibition comes into effect in the USA, three months after the Volstead Act has provided guidelines for enforcement. The US steel strike collapses after four months, with nothing achieved. Ezra Pound publishes Hugh Selwyn Mauberley , a poem that reflects on the practice of poetry itself.

Edith Wharton publishes her best-known novel, The Age of Innocence. Go to Nineteenth Amendment. Charles Ives publishes his Piano Sonata No. Douglas Fairbanks makes the first of his swashbuckling adventure movies, The Mark of Zorro. The marriage of Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks is a Hollywood sensation after a three-year affair. Warren Harding wins the US presidential election for the Republicans.

Go to Harding, Warren Gamaliel 2 Nov. The American novelist Sinclair Lewis has his first major success with Main Street , an unflattering portrayal of American village life. Franklin Delano Roosevelt is paralyzed from the waist down by polio. Go to Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 30 Jan.

Italian immigrant anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti are convicted of murder in a US trial flawed by prejudice. Tulsa race riots cap previous levels of violence, with more than eighty-five blacks killed. Marianne Moore calls her first published collection simply Poems. November 11 - the first of America's 'unknown soldiers' is placed in the new Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery. De Witt Wallace and his wife, working from home, publish the first issue of Reader's Digest. Flaherty lives with the Inuit in the Arctic to make his dramatized documentary Nanook of the North.

Go to Flaherty, Robert J. Sinclair Lewis creates an archetypal character in George Folanshee Babbitt, a real-estate broker in the Midwestern town of Zenith. Linus Pauling, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology, begins theoretical work on the nature of the chemical bond. The Broadway show Ziegfeld Follies features an exciting new dance, the Charleston. Henry Luce has an immediate success with a new magazine, calling it simply Time.

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Bessie Smith has a big hit with her first record, Downhearted Blues , selling two million copies within a year. Wallace Stevens' first collection, Harmonium , sells copies. Robert Frost publishes a new collection of poems, New Hampshire. The US poet e. Warren Harding dies little more than half way through his term of office as US president. US dramatist Elmer Rice establishes his reputation with The Adding Machine , an expressionistic drama about the machine age.

Swimmer Johnny Weissmuller wins three Olympic gold medals in the Paris games, together with a bronze in water polo. US astronomer Edwin Hubble proves that the nebula Andromeda is vastly further away than other stars and can only be a separate galaxy. Erich von Stroheim completes Greed , his epic silent film of ferociously competitive acquisition in turn-of-the-century San Francisco. Robinson publishes a narrative poem, The Man Who Died Twice , about the dissipation of artistic talent.

Trumpeter Louis Armstrong, in Chicago, forms the Hot Five with his wife on piano and three New Orleans musicians on trombone, clarinet and guitar. Harold Ross founds The New Yorker as a humorous weekly, and remains in charge of it until his death in Scott FitzGerald publishes his novel The Great Gatsby , set in a contemporary world of lavish indulgence underpinned by crime. Biology teacher John Scopes is prosecuted for breaking state law by teaching evolution to his class of children in Dayton, Tennessee. Publications Pages Publications Pages.

Search within my subject specializations: Medicine and health Music Names studies Performing arts Philosophy. Encyclopedias, Geographical reference Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: Jump to a year: See this event in other timelines: Prehistory American Indians North America. With the sea level falling, a land bridge known as Beringia forms between Siberia and Alaska, enabling humans to enter the continent of America Go to Bering land bridge in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed. As the ice cap recedes, hunter-gatherers move up the eastern side of America into Newfoundland and the prairie provinces of Canada Go to Maritime Archaic in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.

An English ship, the first to arrive at Roanoke Island since , finds no remaining trace of the settlers or their settlement Go to Roanoke Island in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. Colonists establish the first lasting British settlement in the new world, at Jamestown Go to Jamestown in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. John Smith claims many years later that when captured by Indians he was saved from execution by Pocahontas, daughter of the chief Go to Pocahontas c. Pocahontas fascinates Londoners when she arrives with her husband to publicize Jamestown Go to Pocahontas c. Ten days after their first landfall, at Cape Cod, the adult males on the Mayflower agree a form of government for their new colony Go to Pilgrims in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

The Pilgrims on the Mayflower select a place for their settlement, and give it the name of Plymouth, their port of departure in England Go to Pilgrims in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Mayflower settlers in Plymouth offer thanksgiving for their first harvest, eating turkeys in a celebration shared by local Indians Go to Pilgrims in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Peter Stuyvesant accepts the reality of the military situation and yields New Amsterdam to the British without a shot being fired Go to Stuyvesant, Peter —72 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Mennonites and other from Germany later known as the Pennsylvania Dutch begin to settle in Penn's liberal colony Go to Penn, William — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Benjamin Franklin establishes the most successful of America's almanacs, publishing it annually until Go to Franklin, Benjamin —90 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. George Washington undertakes a difficult and ineffectual journey to persuade the French to withdraw from the Ohio valley Go to Washington, George —99 in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. Pioneer Daniel Boone and other backwoodsmen cut the road west that will bring settlers to Kentucky Go to Boone, Daniel c.

Maryland, ratifies the Articles of Confederation the last state to do so , completing 'the Confederation of the United States' Go to Articles of Confederation in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Benjamin Franklin, irritated at needing two pairs of spectacles, commissions from a lens-grinder the first bifocals Go to Franklin, Benjamin —90 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The constitution of the United States is ratified by the states, but it is immediately agreed that amendments will be desirable Go to Constitution of the United States in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, enormously speeding up the process of separating cotton fibres from the seeds Go to cotton gin in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Two extra stars are added to the American flag for Vermont and Kentucky, two new states that have joined since the original union of thirteen Go to United States of America in World Flags 1 ed. Madison, a landmark example of judicial review, the US Supreme Court declares an act of Congress to be unconstitutional Go to judicial review in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy 2 rev ed.

A network of undercover abolitionists in the southern states of America help slaves escape to freedom in the north Go to abolitionist in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The inhabitants of the Mexican province of Texas declare their independence as a new republic Go to Texas in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed.

Herman Melville goes to sea on the whaler Acushnet and spends more than a year in the south Pacific Go to Melville, Herman —91 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Gold is found on the property of John Sutter, at Coloma on the Sacramento river in California, and news of it launches the first gold rush Go to gold rush noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Langstroth, discovers the 'bee space', which becomes a standard feature of the modern beehive Go to Apiculture in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History 1 ed. The first edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass is published anonymously, at his own expense, and contains just 12 poems Go to Whitman, Walt —92 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Mail is carried by horse relay from Missouri to California, travelling miles in ten days in the service known as the Pony Express Go to Pony Express —61 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.